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Vitamins, Minerals, Amino Acids and other Supplements

Vitamins: These are chemical compounds necessary for normal growth, health, metabolism and physical well-being. Vitamins provide essential parts of enzymes and hormones.



What it does

Natural Sources

Vitamin A

-Treatment of eye disorders, support bone growth

-Form and maintain healthy hair/skin (acne), mucous membranes.

-Builds resistance to respiratory infections.

-Asparagus, carrots, pumpkin, spinach, broccoli

Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid)

-Promotes healthy gums and teeth

-Aids in iron absorption

-Helps heal wounds and broken bones

-Prevents scurvy

-Helps with anemia, urinary infection

-Helps form collagen, Red blood cells and hemoglobin production.

-Grapefruit, Broccoli, Green peppers, lemons, mango, Oranges, papayas, potatoes ant tomatoes.

Vitamin B-12

-Promotes growth

-Treatment of nerve damage and pernicious anemia

-Helps with resistance to infection, improves memory, increases energy, stress reducer

-Beef, blue cheese, eggs, flounder, mackerel, milk products, snapper, not found in vegetables.

Vitamin H (Biotin)

-Forms fatty acids, facilitates metabolism amino acids and carbohydrates.

-Promotes health of sweat glands, nerve tissue, bone marrow, male sex glands, blood cells, skin and hair.

-Brewers yeast, brown rice, cashews, cheese, chicken, eggs, lentils, mackerel, soy beans, sunflower seeds

Vitamin D

-Regulates growth, hardening, and repair of bones by controlling absorption of calcium, Phosphorus from small intestine.

-Prevents rickets

-Prevents hypocalcaemia

-Cod liver oil, halibut liver oil, herring, Mackerel, salmon, sardines and sunlight.

Vitamin E

-Promotes normal growth and development.

-Prevents oxidation of radicals in the body

-Anti clotting

-Protects tissues against oxidation

-Promotes red blood cell formation

-Almonds, apricots and corn oil, hazelnuts, peanut oil, sunflower seeds, walnuts, wheat germ, whole-wheat flour.

Vitamin B-9 (Folic Acid)

-Promotes red blood cell formation

-Maintains nervous system, intestinal tract, sex organs, white blood cells, and normal growth and development.

-Treats anemia’s

-Barley, beans, brewers yeast, fruits, chickpeas, green leafy vegetables, orange juice, peas, rice, soybeans, sprouts, wheat germ.

Vitamin K

-Promotes normal growth and development

-Prevents abdominal bleeding. Vitamin K is normally made in the intestinal tract by micro flora (friendly bacteria).

-Alfalfa, brussel sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, cheddar cheese, green tea, oats, soybeans, spinach, turnip.

Vitamin B-3 (Niacin)

-Supports normal function of skin, nerves, digestive system

-Decrease cholesterol and triglycerides in blood.

-Dilates blood vessels

-Treats vertigo, tinnitus

-Prevents PMS headaches

-Chicken, halibut, peanuts, pork, salmon, sunflower seeds, swordfish, tuna, turkey

Vitamin B-5 (Pantothenic Acid)

-Promotes normal growth and development

-Aids in release of energy from food

-Helps synthesize numerous body materials

-Blue cheese, corn, eggs, lentils, lobster, peanuts, peas, soybeans, sunflower seeds, wheat germ, whole grain products.

Vitamin B-6 (Pyridoxine)

-Active in many chemical reactions

-Helps with normal function of the brain, red blood cells formation.

-Helps with chemical balancing among body fluids

-Energizes and helps with resistance to stress

-Acts as co-enzyme in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism.

-Avocadoes, bananas, brewers yeast, carrots, lentils, rice, salmon, soybeans, sunflower seeds, tuna and wheat germ.

Vitamin B-2 (Riboflavin)

-Aids in release if energy from food, maintains healthy mucous membranes, lining of respiratory tract, digestive tract, circulatory tract when used in conjunction with vitamin A.

-Preserves the integrity of the nervous system, skin and eyes.

-Promotes normal growth and development and prevents infections.

-Almonds, brewer’s yeast, cheese, chicken, organ meats, wheat germ

Vitamin B-1 (Thiamine)

-Keeps mucous membranes healthy.

-Maintains normal function of nervous system muscles, heart.

-Promotes normal growth and development

-Brewers yeast, chickpeas, kidney beans, pork, beef liver, rice bran, salmon, soybeans, wheat germ.




Minerals: A lot of minerals are essential parts of enzymes; they participate in many physiological functions, i.e. oxygen transportation, muscle contractions and nervous system functioning.  Minerals are required for growth, maintenance, repair and health of tissues and bones.



What it does?

Natural Sources





-Builds strong bones and teeth.

-Improves nerve function, blood clotting and metabolism.

-Milk, milk products, tofu, canned sardines, salmon, dark green vegetables.


-Stimulates bone growth for muscle function and metabolism.

-Leafy green vegetables, legumes and whole grain cereals and breads, meat, poultry, fish, eggs.


-Maintain strong bones and teeth

-A component of some enzymes essential for proper metabolism.

-Meat, poultry, fish, egg yolks, legumes, dairy products





-Works with insulin to metabolize glucose

-Brewers Yeast, whole grain, liver, cheese


-Promotes iron absorption

-Essential for red Blood Cells, connective tissue, nerve fibers and skin pigment.

-A component of several enzymes.

-Liver, shellfish, legumes, nuts, prunes


-Helps maintain strong bones and teeth

-Fluoridated water and tea


-Necessary to make thyroid hormones

-Iodized salt, seafood, foods grown in iodine rich soil.


-Needed for transport and storage of oxygen

-Liver, meat, seafood, legumes, fortified cereals


-Component of enzymes needed for metabolism, bone and tendon formation

-Coffee, teas, nuts, legumes, bran


-Needed for enzymes to promote metabolism also an instrument for iron storage.

-Organ meats, dark green leafy vegetables, whole grain products.


-Antioxidant, works with vitamin E to protect cell membrane from oxidative damage.

-Poultry, seafood, organ meats, whole grain products, onions, garlic, mushrooms


-Component of 2 essential amino acids

-Protein foods


-Helps in metabolic action of enzymes essential for growth and reproduction.

-Oysters, meat, yogurt, fortified cereals





-Maintains proper v\body chemistry and makes digestive juices

-Table salt, seafood, milk, eggs, meat


-Along with sodium, helps maintain fluid balance promotes proper metabolism and muscle function.

-Avocadoes, bananas, citrus fruits, legumes, whole grain products.


-With potassium, sodium regulated body’s fluid balance and promotes proper muscle function.

-Table salt, dairy products, seafood, seasoning



Amino Acids/nucleic acids: There are 20 essential amino acids necessary for the body to synthesize proteins.  Amino acids are known to play vital roles in the central nervous system at transmission sites between nerve cells and they then stimulate the immune system.  Nucleic acids are large molecules encoded in genes and are a part of each living cell, they are no good taken orally due to the acidic nature of the stomach.


Adenosine: (nucleic acid) Adenosine functions as an essential part of every living cell, but supplements taken are useless. Natural sources: All foods


Arginine: (amino acid) Functions as a building block for all proteins, stimulates human growth hormone.  May help with muscle growth increase metabolism, speeds up wound healing. Natural Sources: Brown rice, carob, chocolate, nuts, oatmeal, popcorn, raisins, raw cereals, sesame seeds, sunflower seeds, whole-wheat products.  

DNA/RNA: (nucleic acids)  

Inosine: (nucleic acid)

L-Cysteine: (amino acid) L-cysteine is a protein building block, eliminates some toxic chemicals, it is known to help build muscle, burns fat, protects against toxins and pollutants. Combats against arthritis, may participate in some forms of DNA repair.  Natural Sources: Dairy products, eggs, meat, some cereals.


L-Lysine: (amino acid) L-Lysine is a protein building block, promotes growth and tissue repair, helps in production of antibodies, hormones and enzymes. Natural Sources: cheese, eggs, fish, lima beans, milk, potatoes, soy products, yeast.


Methionine: (amino acids) Methionine is a protein block, cysteine and taurine may rely on methionine for synthesis in the body.  It has been known to eliminate fatty substances that may obstruct arteries.  Natural Sources: eggs, fish, meat, milk.


Orotate: (Nucleic acid)


Phenylalanine: (amino acids) Protein building block. Can induce significance short term increase of blood levels of nor-epinephrine, dopamine, and epinephrine can be harmful.  Natural Sources: Almonds, avocados, bananas, cheese, lima beans, non fat dried milk, peanuts, pickled herring, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds.


Taurine: (amino acids) Taurine may be helpful with epilepsy.  It is also a protein building block; helps regulate nervous system and muscle system.  Natural Sources: fish, eggs, meat, milk, not available in plant sources.


Tryptophan: (amino acids) Tryptophan is a protein building block; it has been known to be a sleep aid, anti-depressant, and can suppress the appetite.  Natural Sources: Bananas, cottage cheese, dried dates, fish, meat, milk, peanuts, turkey.


Tyrosine: (amino acids) Tyrosine is a protein building block and can also cause a short-term increase in nor-epinephrine, dopamine, and epinephrine, therefore can be harmful.  It has also been known to help with memory, diminish pain, increase mental alertness, and promote sexual interest and release hormones that suppress appetite. Natural Sources: Almonds, avocadoes, bananas, cheese, lima beans, non-fat dried milk, peanuts, pickled herring, pumpkin seeds, sesame seeds.




Selected Supplements:  These play an important role in human health and nutrition; they are neither vitamins nor minerals.


Acidophilus: This is a bacterium found in yogurt, kefir.  It has been known to decrease cholesterol, clear up skin, prevent vaginal yeast infection, promote digestion of milk products and enhance immunity.


Bee Pollen: Bee pollen is microscopic male seed in flowering plants.  It is known to be an anti-aging agent, energizer, and bowel regulator, skin renewal, weight control, stress reliever and may inhibit some cancers.


Bioflavinoids: Also known as vitamin P, bioflavinoids are brightly colored constituents of pulp/rind of citrus fruits, green peppers, apricots, cherries, grapes, papaya, tomatoes and broccoli.  It also has been known to increase the effect of vitamin C, prevent hemorrhoids, and working on fragile capillaries and unusual bleeding.


Brewers Yeast: This is an excellent source of B-vitamins, protein and minerals.  Brewers yeast provides bulk to prevent constipation; it also is a good source of enzyme producing vitamins.


Gamma Linolenic Acid: This is found in evening primrose oil. GLA has been known to help inhibit coughing, and acts as an excellent astringent.  It is overall good to have in ones diet.


Omega-3-Fatty Acids: This comes from cold-water fish like; cod, tuna, salmon, halibut, shark, mackerel.  Omega’s help protect against arthritis, arteriosclerosis, coronary artery disease, strokes and kidney failure.


Royal Jelly: Royal Jelly is a milky, white gelatinous substance secreted by the salivary glands of worker bees to stimulate the growth and development of the queen bee.  Royal Jelly has been known to extend ones life span and treat bone and joint disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis.  It also contains antibiotic properties.


Spirulina: This a blue-green algae that grows wild on surface of brackish, alkaline lakes in the tropics. Spirulina has been known to help with obesity issues; it has been used as a tonic and acts as an energy booster.


Wheat Germ: This is the embryo of the wheat grain located at the lower end.  It is derived from both root and shoot.  Wheat germ is an excellent source of calcium, copper, manganese, magnesium, most B-vitamins, phosphorus and vitamin E.

Readers Digest Association Inc Foods that Harm and Foods that Heal Readers Digest Association Ltd, London 1997
Rosenbaum, Michael & Bosco, Dominick Super Supplements New American Library, NY,NY 1987
Griffith, H. Winter Complete Guide to Vitamins, Minerals and Supplements Fischer Books, Tucson, Arizona 1988
Reynolds, Jayde Sliced: State of the Art Nutrition for Building Lean Body Mass Contemporary Books, Chicago, Illinois 1991


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